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The American dream, the idea that familial social mobility can be achieved through hard work and determination, is becoming a myth for those individuals who are viewed as outsiders in society. When those outsiders are incarcerated, or further confined by use of ankle monitors, the restriction they face is just another purposeful abuse of power by the penal state to prevent any upward mobility in society.

In the podcast, Hinojosa tells the story of a woman who is attempting to enter the U. The ankle monitor wearer is confined to a specific zone This is harmful for society because the people who are targeted as criminals, specifically the poor and people of color, are targeted primarily because of the oppressive system that has been created. It is an industry of incriminating the people of America who are lower class and pushing them further and further down this modern, glorified caste system.

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As much as some would like to believe that the U. Society has certainly made progress on the basis of racial equality over the last few centuries, but there are still many issues that go under the radar because they are viewed as acceptable to those who are not impacted. This implies that the penal state allows for legal discrimination by means of mass incarceration, which ultimately encourages the use of criminalization for keeping minorities as the outsiders of society, and the white American majority as the more advantaged, privileged members of society.

Alexander explains, there are laws against racist acts and prejudice, but that does not stop the stigma that has emerged from the phenomenon of mass incarceration. It is under a veil of false colorblindness or racial equality that society continues to marginalize the already alienated and underprivileged individuals, including immigrants. Americans hold the expectations that immigrants and minorities have the same privileges when it comes to achieving the American dream, but the prison system and the criminalization effects of ankle monitors completely eliminate this possibility of upward mobility through hard work.

Just as poor and working-class citizens are made into criminals and dehumanized by the justice system, refugees seeking asylum in the U. There is a social stigma that has emerged from the use of ankle monitors for immigration control that mirrors the dehumanization of criminals in the prison system. He explains that they are easily targeted, despite the claim that the U. Works Cited Alexander, Michelle.

The large approval rate indicates that BCA guidance is generally understood and fol- lowed according to FAA standards. Of the remaining studies, 18 were withdrawn by the sponsor and nine either were resolved at the regional office, were exempt from the BCA process, or raised no objections.

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The most common benefits proposed in these BCA studies were reduced aircraft operation costs, reduced passenger delays, reduced aircraft delays, air time savings, salvage value, and ground time savings. Other benefits include air cargo revenue, land revenues, airport operating cost savings, reduced cancellations, increased nonairline revenue at airports, increased airline ticket revenue, energy savings, reduced fares, and reduced wear and tear on aircraft. Hard-to-quantify benefits are included in virtually all BCA studies to 1 impress upon the FAA that there are major project benefits in addition to what is shown through the BCA calculations, 2 magnify the necessity of a project that shows a BCA ratio near or below 1.

These ben- efits are generally environmental benefits, including reduced auto and aircraft emissions including references to local EPA nonattainment areas , improved storm water manage- ment and water quality, and noise abatement. Some of these effi- ciency benefits commonly are measured using unit costs time saved and wages.

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Safety benefits are covered by regulation and are not subject to benefit-cost requirement. These include correcting existing conditions of a deficient runway; expanding aprons, approaches, and safety areas; and improving visibility for pilots and separating operations by moving a runway or building a new runway. In addition, FAA reviews have strength- ened base cases, most notably when staff realize that safety compliance improvements are mixed with capacity-enhancing projects in the preferred alternative.

This is particularly important at small airports to reach a 1. Overall, FAA guidance documents effectively serve the aviation community for most projects. In assembling this synthesis, several issues became apparent. Developing an appropri- ate base case is a critical component of BCA studies that is often problematic, so further technical assistance could strengthen analysis submittals. Cargo benefits are a growing element of airport BCA studies, but measurement of those benefits differs widely among studies.

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In addition, salvage value, also frequently invoked, is calculated in multiple ways. Other concerns include the valuation of time: FAA guidance states that the values should not be adjusted for inflation, but multiple BCA studies have adjusted those values because the most recent guidance available was out of date.

Finally, there are issues of how survey data are used to determine potential changes in airport demand, and how information from confidential sources is treated. Ultimately, clear needs for further research are evident. These topics fall into five gen- eral subject areas, including four of five directly related to hard-to-quantify benefits: 1 clarification of BCA standards, especially as they relate to the need for consistent standards among modal agencies, 2 research on the valuation of air freight time delay and reliabil- ity, 3 treatment of benefits that span multiple modes of transportation, 4 treatment of state and regional air network efficiencies that differ from single airport benefits, and 5 relationship of economic development benefits and BCA.

However, the need for more research and guidance on air freight benefits is growing. Air freight is the fastest growing element of freight movement in North America in terms of a percentage growth rate. As long-distance supply chains have evolved and product markets have become more national and global in scale, the economic impor- tance of air freight in general, and the role of air freight gateways and their ground access connections, has also grown. Future ACRP studies will examine the economic impact and value of air freight activities at airports. However, there is an additional need to improve future airport BCA studies through additional research and guidance pertaining to both the scope and measurement of freight impacts.

In all likelihood, these values may depend critically on freight mix and they may change as technologies evolve. Traditionally, airport BCA studies focused on interviewing air travel- ers, air carriers, and airport-related businesses primarily fixed-base operators for information on how airport improvements would affect their costs and benefits. However, with the growth of air freight, many businesses are not airport related, yet they depend on air parcel carriers and commercial aviation through belly freight for incoming supplies and outgoing orders.

The benefits of enhanced air services for the productivity of these aviation-reliant businesses, the ultimate users of air freight, may be significantly larger than the benefits reported by commercial and charter carriers. Further research is needed to better understand the valuation of benefits for this group and to recognize these benefits without double-counting the benefits to air carriers. Treatment of Multimodal Transportation Improvements2.

Insofar as an airport improve- ment project may affect traffic on access roads and related connectors, it would make sense to measure the benefit and cost implications of those ground transport changes, regardless of how many of the affected parties are ultimately accessing the airport.

By the same token, many road system changes also may affect the travel routes of some people or cargo to and from the airport. In particular, multimodal planning of joint improvements could lead both parties to count some of the same benefits. Further research is needed to untangle the relationships in multimodal interactions, how they can be exploited for better planning, and how they need to be carefully counted to avoid error in BCA. Treatment of Network Efficiencies3.

In some cases, improvements to one airport may lead to spillover benefits for other airports. In other cases, improvements to one airport may reduce the future benefit of previous investments in competing airports.

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The issue is recognized in FAA guid- ance, but the tools to untangle and address these issues are not well developed. Some states, when developing their State Airport System Plans, have considered these. Further research is needed to develop better analysis methods that could be used to enhance public investment decision making. Often, the motivation is to reduce economic distress in areas of high unemployment and low income, which are acknowledged federal interests. However, traditional BCA does not provide any way to recognize distributional benefits. Methods are not yet devel- oped to place a federal or state value on the reduction in government transfer costs such as welfare, food stamps, and unemployment payments associated with reduc- ing economic distress, or other hard-to-quantify benefits of local or regional eco- nomic development.

Because such benefits are commonly recognized by the public, further research may be appropriate to investigate ways that such economic develop- ment benefits can be recognized in investment prioritization and decision making.

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BCA is not required for proj- ects that are designed to provide compliance with regulatory requirements, such as safety standards. Airports filing BCA studies must identify aviation ben- efits accruing as a result of these projects in accordance with published FAA guidance. For large commercial service airports requiring capacity enhance- ment to address current or anticipated future congestion delays, the guidance provides a straightforward methodol- ogy for measuring costs and value of time associated with those delays.

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Guidance is not well-developed, however, in document- ing acceptable processes to estimate other classes of ben- efit that have become more important in recent years, such as those associated with air cargo movement and corporate aviation uses. This creates a challenge for some projects whose ben- efits are difficult to quantify, particularly at smaller airports. At nonhub and general aviation airports, congestion delays are rarely a factor.

It examines how the FAA has viewed those techniques. The report highlights innovative techniques developed in some airport studies, in addition to common techniques that are widely used to measure benefits and costs. Note: Process may vary.

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The remainder of the report document contains the follow- ing chapters. It summarizes the different classes of benefits and costs that are either commonly or occasionally included in BCA studies, and the resulting issues they raise concerning the use and interpretation of BCA. First, it examines similarities and differences between benefit-cost guidance issued by the FAA and corresponding guidance issued by other modal agencies in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Second, it provides an overview of the BCA studies submitted to the FAA between and , and provides more detailed information on the types of benefit measurement approaches used in a representative sample of 24 of those airport studies.

Although the Policy Office reviews BCA studies to determine whether the analyses conform to FAA guidance and the projects are likely to generate at least as much benefit as it is projected to cost, the Airports Division considers other factors as well, including hard-to-quantify benefits that may not be included in BCA calculations.

This is particularly important for small airports, which are less likely to justify capital improvements on the most commonly measured benefits of user time and cost savings. BCA practices need to conform to generally accepted practices that are applied to an array of government investment decisions. The FAA is one of many government agencies that use the BCA tool to make logical and efficient investments, and the use of BCA as part of eval- uative processes is not a burden shouldered only by airports.

First, the application is received by the Air- ports Division, which is the link between the FAA and the proponent airport. In the latter sce- nario, supplemental documentation or analysis is requested from the proponent. This document is supported by a glossary, references, and five appendixes, including a list of BCA studies submit- ted to the FAA over the past 10 years, a list of the 24 of the benefit-cost studies reviewed for this synthesis, discus- sion guides for airport personnel and consultants, a discus- sion guide for FAA staff, and a list of interviewees.

The case studies summarize basic information from BCA documents, but also provide reflections of airport personnel, consultants, and FAA staff from interviews, and are augmented by interviews with airport personnel, con- sultants, and FAA staff concerning review of challenges in developing benefit cases, final outcomes and post-project outcomes, and lessons learned.

It focuses primar- ily on defining and explaining the key concepts used for BCA assessment of proposed airport improvement projects. Although this chapter is generalized to apply to all trans- portation modes, the next chapter will identify key issues relevant specifically to airport projects.